1. Note-taking symbols and abbreviations for your reference:
Abbreviations in Note taking
Use only the abbreviations that fit your needs and that you will remember easily. A good idea is to
introduce only a few abbreviations into your note taking at a time.
Symbols helpful in math -- these are commonly used in texts and references.
S = sum
f = frequency
Leave out periods in standard abbreviations.
cf = compare
e.g. = example
dept = department
Use only the first syllable of a word.
pol = politics
dem = democracy
lib = liberal
cap = capitalism
Use entire first syllable and only 1st letter of 2nd syllable.
pres = presentation
subj = subject
ind = individual
cons = conservative
Eliminate final letters. Use just enough of the word to form a recognizable abbreviation.
assoc = associate
biol = biology
info = information
ach = achievement
chem = chemistry
max = maximum
intro = introduction
conc = concentration
min = minimum
rep = repetition
Omit vowels, retain only enough consonants to give a recognizable skeleton of the word.
ppd = prepared
prblm = problem
estmt = estimate
bkgd = background
gvt = government
Use an apostrophe in place of letters.
am't = amount
cont'd = continued
gov't = government
educat'l = educational
Form the plural of a symbol or abbreviated word by adding s.
chpts = chapters
egs = examples
fs = frequencies
intros = introductions
Use g to represent ing endings.
ckg = checking
estg = establishing
decrg = decreasing
exptg = experimenting
Spell out short words such as in, at, to, but, for, and key.
Abbreviations or symbols for short words will make the notes too dense with shorthand.
Leave out unimportant words.
Leave out the words a and the.
If a term, phrase, or name is written out in full during the lecture, substitute initials whenever the
term, phrase, or name is used again. For example, Center for Aerospace Sciences becomes CAS
Use symbols for commonly recurring connective or transitional words.
& = and
w/ = with
w/o = without
vs = against
\ = therefore
= = is or equal
Use technical symbols where applicable.
zb = German, for example
ibid = Latin, the same work
o = degrees
H2O = water
Use standard maths, accounting, and science symbols. Examples:
Use standard abbreviations and leave out full stops. Examples:
IT dept Information Technology department
UK United Kingdom
Use only the first syllable of a word. Examples:
Use the entire first syllable and the first letter of the second syllable. Examples:
To distinguish among various forms of the same word, use the first syllable of the word, an
apostrophe, and the ending of the word. Examples:
Use just enough of the beginning of a word to form a recognisable abbreviation. Examples:
Omit vowels from the middle of words, retaining only enough consonants to provide a
recognisable skeleton of the word. Examples:
Form the plural of a symbol or abbreviated word by adding 's.' Examples:
Use 'g' to represent 'ing' endings. Examples:
Spell out, rather than abbreviate short words. Examples:
Leave out unimportant verbs. Examples:
Leave out unnecessary articles. Examples:
If a term, phrase, or name is initially written out in full during the talk or meeting, initials can be
substituted whenever the term, phrase, or name is used again. Example:
January Advertising Campaign Budget JACB
Use symbols for common connective or transition words. Examples:
Create your own set of abbreviations and symbols. You may wish to develop separate sets of
symbols and abbreviations for different courses or subjects.
Other Symbols and Abbreviations
as a result of / consequences of <--->
resulting in --->
and / also +
equal to / same as =
most importantly *
less than <
greater than > especially esp/
英語當中縮略詞使用的頻率很高，如IMP: important, ASAP: as soon as possible。很顯然如果
I owe you IOU
In stead of I/O